- Centers of Emphasis:
Dr. Schultz is the Director of the Center for Autism Research (CAR). CAR's mission is to discover the causes the autism spectrum disorders, including the relationship between genes, brain and behavior. CAR also studies mechanisms that lead to changes in behavior due to successful intervention.
RESEARCH INTERESTS: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD), Intellectual Disability (ID) and related developmental disabilities (DDs). Behavioral Genetics. Cognitive neuroscience. Biomarkers that moderate treatment outcome. Big Data. Online Phenotyping. Relationships between genes, brain, behavior and development in the DDs.
RESEARCH METHODS: sMRI, fMRI, DTI, ERP, genotyping, infra red Eye Tracking; Clinical and Neuropsychological Assessment, Online Computer Adaptive Testing; Clinical trials
RESEARCH SUMMARY: I am the Director of the Center for Autism Research (CAR) at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP). CAR's mission is to find the biological causes of ASD so that we can help create more efficacious treatments.
My lab's research focuses on obtaining large samples of research volunteers with ASD, so that we can examine the relationships between ASD, ID, DD and susceptibility genes, endophenotypes (e.g., as measured with MRI, EEG or Eye tracking), clinical phenomenology and development (including response to treatment). Given the heterogeneity of ASD, and the opportunities to collect large samples through CAR (and online), we feel like studying relationships between gene, brain, behavior and time will provide critical insights into the biological causes of DDs and related psychiatry comorbidities (e.g., ADHD).
Schultz, R.T., Cho, N.K., Staib, L.H., Kier, L.E., Fletcher, J. M., Shaywitz, S.E., Shankweiler, D.P., Katz, L., Gore, J.C., Duncan, J. S.,& Shaywitz, B. Brain morphology in normal and dyslexic children: The influence of sex and age. Annals of Neurology, 1994: 35, 732-742
Schultz, R.T., Gauthier, I., Klin A., Fulbright, R., Anderson, A., Volkmar, F., Skudlarski, P., Lacadie, C., Cohen, D.J., Gore, J.C. Abnormal ventral temporal cortical activity during face discrimination among individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 2000: 57(3), 331-340
Schultz, R.T. Romanski, L., Tsatsanis, K. Neurofunctional Models of Autistic Disorder and Asperger Syndrome: Clues from Neuroimaging. In A. Klin, F.R Volkmar & S.S Sparrow (Eds.) Asperger Syndrome. New York: Plenum Press, 2000, 179-209.
Klin, A, Jones, W., Schultz, R., Volkmar, F., & Cohen, D.J. Visual fixation patterns during viewing of naturalistic social situations as predictors of social competence in individuals with autism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 2002: 59, 809-816.
Schultz, R.T., Grelotti, D.J., Klin, A., Kleinman, J., Van der Gaag, C., Marois, R. & Skudlarski, P. The role of the fusiform face area in social cognition: Implications for the pathobiology of autism. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B, 2003: 358, 415-427.
Pasley, B.N., Mayes, L.C. & Schultz, R.T. Subcortical discrimination of unperceived objects during binocular rivalry. Neuron, 2004: 42, 163-172.
Schultz, R.T. & Robins, D.L. Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Autism Spectrum Disorders. In F. Volkmar, A. Klin, & R. Paul (Eds), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (3rd Edition). New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2005: 515-533.
Schultz, R.T. Developmental deficits in social perception in autism: The role of the amygdala and fusiform face area. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 2005: 23, 125-141
Vanderwal, T., Hunyadi, E., Grupe, D.W., Connors, C.M., Schultz, R.T. Self, Mother and Abstract Other: an fMRI study of reflective social? processing. NeuroImage. 2008:41 (4), 1437-1446.
Levy, S.E., Mandell, D.S, & Schultz, R.T. Autism. Lancet. 2009: 374 (9701):1627-38
Wang, K., et al. Common genetic variants on 5p14.1 associate with autism spectrum disorders, Nature, 2009: 459(7246):528-33
Glessner, J.T., et al. Autism genome-wide copy number variation reveals ubiquitin and neuronal genes, Nature, 2009:459(7246): 569-73.
Chevallier, C., Kohls, G., Troiani, V., Brodkin, E.S. & Schultz, R.T. The Social Motivation Theory of Autism. Trends in Cognitive Science, 2012, 16(4):231-9. PMID: 22425667
Kohls, G., Perino, M.T., Taylor, J.M., Madva, E.N., Troiani, V., Price, E., Faja, S., Herrington, J.D., & Schultz, R.T. The nucleus accumbens is involved in both the pursuit of social reward and the avoidance of social punishment. Neuropsychologia, 2013: 51(11), 2062-9. PMID 23911778
Kohls, G., Schulte-Ruther, M., Nehrkorn, B., Muller, K, Fink, GR, Kamp-Becker, I., Herpertz-Dahlmann, B., Schultz, R.T., & Konrad, K. Reward system dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders. Social Cognitive Affective Neuroscience, 2013: 8(5), 565-72. PMID: 22419119. PMCID: PMC3682440
Kohls, G., Chevallier, C., Troiani, V., & Schultz, R.T. Social ?wanting? dysfunction in autism: neurobiological underpinnings and treatment implications. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 2012, 4(7), 1-20. PMID: 22958468. PMCID: PMC3436671
Tanaka,, JW, Wolf, JM, Klaiman, C, Koenig, K, Cockburn, J, Herlihy, L, Brown, C, Stahl, S, Kaiser, MD, & Schultz, R.T.. Using computerized games to teach face recognition skills to children with autism spectrum disorder: The Let's Face It! program. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2010: 51(8), 944-952. PMID: 20646129
Coutanche, MN, Thompson-Schill, SL and Schultz, R.T. Multi-voxel pattern analysis of fMRI data predicts clinical symptom severity. NeuroImage, 2011: 57(1), 113-123. PMID: 21513803
Herrington, JD, Nymberg, C & Schultz, R.T. Biological Motion Task Performance Predicts Superior Temporal Sulcus Activity. Brain and Cognition, 2011: 77(3):372-81. PMID: 22024246
Bloy, L., Ingalhalikar, M., Eavani, H., Schultz, R.T., Roberts, T.P.L., Verma, R., White Matter Atlas Generation using HARDI based Automated Parcellation. Neuroimage, 2012: 59(4):4055-63PMID: 21893205
Wolff, JJ, Gu, H, Gerig, G, Elison, JT, Gouttard, S, Styner, M Botteron, KN, Collins, L, Dager, SR, Dawson, G, Estes, AM, Evans, A, Hazlett, HC, Kostopoulos, P, McKinstry, RC, Paterson, SJ, Schultz, R.T., Zwaigenbaum, L, Piven, J. for the IBIS Network. Differences in White Matter Fiber Tract Development Present from 6 to 24 Months in Infants with Autism. American Journal of Psychiatry, 2012;169(6):589-60 Feb 17. [Epub ahead of print]
Bloy, L., Ingalhalikar, M., Batmanghelich, N.K., Schultz, R.T., Roberts, T.P.L., & Verma, R. An integrated framework for HARDI-based investigation of structural connectivity. Brain Connectivity, 2012: 2(2), 69-79. PMID: 22500705.
Tanaka, J.W., Wolf, J.M. Klaiman, C., Koenig, K., Cockburn, J., Herlihy, L., Brown, C., Stahl, S., South, M., McPartland, J., Kaiser, M.D., & Schultz, R.T. The perception and identification of facial emotions in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders using the Let?s Face It! Emotion Skills Battery. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2012 Jul 11. [Epub ahead of print]
Hazlett, H.C., Gu, H., McKinstry, R.C, Shaw, D.W.W., Botteron, K.N., Dager, S., Styner, M., Vachet, C., Gerig, G., Paterson, S.J., Schultz, R.T, Estes, A.M., Evans, A.C., & Piven, J. for the IBIS network. Brain volume findings in six month old infants at high familial risk for autism. American Journal of Psychiatry, 2012 Jun;169(6):601-8.
Wolff, JJ, Botteron, KN, Dager, SR, Elison, JT, Estes, AM, Gu, H, Hazlett, HC, Pandey, J, Paterson, SJ, Schultz, RT, Zwaigenbaum, L & Piven, J, The IBIS Network. Longitudinal Patterns of Repetitive Behavior in Toddlers with Autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. In Press
Lewis, J. D., Evans, A. C. , Pruett, J. R. , Botteron, K., Zwaigenbaum, L., Estes, A., Gerig, G., Collins, L., Kostopoulos, P. , McKinstry, R., Dager, S. Paterson, S., Schultz, R., Styner, M., Hazlett, H., Piven, J. and the IBIS network (In Press). Network inefficiencies in autism spectrum disorder at 24 months. Translational Psychiatry. In Press
Herrington, J.D., Nymberg, C., Faja, S.K., Price, E., & Schultz, R. The responsiveness of biological motion processing areas to selective attention towards goals. Neuroimage, 2012: 63(1), 581-90. PMID: 22796987.
Fein, D., Barton, M., Eigsti, I., Kelley, E., Naigles, L., Schultz, R.T., Stevens, M., Helt, M., Orinstein, A., Rosenthal, M., Troyb, E., & Tyson, K. Optimal outcome in individuals with a history of Autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2013: 54(2), 195?205. PMID: 23320807. PMCID: PMC3547539
Maxwell, C.R., Parish-Morris, J., Hsin, O., Bush, J.C., Schultz, R.T. The Broad Autism Phenotype Predicts Child Functioning in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 2013:5. PMID: 24053506
Chevallier, C, Parish-Morris, J, Tonge, N, Le, L, Miller, J, & Schultz, R.T. Susceptibility to the audience effect explains performance gap between children with and without autism in a Theory of Mind task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. Jan 6, 2014 [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 24392710
Troiani, V., Price, E.T., & Schultz, R.T. Unseen fearful faces promote amygdala guidance of attention. Social Cognitive Affective Neuroscience, 2014 Feb;9(2):133-40. PMID: 23051897
- Professor of Psychiatry at University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine (2011– present)
- Professor of Clinical Psychology in Pediatrics at University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine (2008– present)
- PhD, Clinical Psychology/Neuropsychology, Behavioral Genetics, University of Texas at Austin (1991)
- BA, Psychology, University of Delaware (1983)