From 1988 through June of 2014, I was the Director of the Clinical Virology Laboratory at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia with oversight responsibility of an active laboratory staff of 17 full-time and two part-time employees. I provided day-to-day supervision and mentoring of testing personnel, ensuring proper performance of all laboratory testing services and reporting of test results. My duties included selecting the tests that were performed, verifying/validating their performance, choosing appropriate equipment, reviewing and interpreting patient test results, providing consultation to clinicians and other healthcare providers about patient testing, writing and reviewing standard operating procedures, assuring proper quality control and continuous quality assurance of laboratory testing, assuring regulatory compliance, providing for strategic and capitol planning and other fiscal affairs of the laboratory, developing and reviewing annual budgets, and overseeing employee hiring/firing, competency and training. I was also responsible for the continuous development, validation and implementation of new, state-of-the-art diagnostic methods that have the greatest impact on the care and management of patients with viral diseases. Teaching and mentoring of infectious disease fellows, pathology residents, medical students, medical technologists, and visiting scientists was also an integral component of my position. My work and expertise supported the goals and mission of the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia in its efforts to be "the world leader in the advancement of healthcare for children by integrating excellent patient care, innovative research and quality professional education into all of its programs". My areas of expertise include diagnostic virology, comprehensive viral cultures, tissue culture, viral serology, rapid viral antigen detection, and molecular detection and quantitative monitoring of viruses. Viruses and other microorganisms of particular interest to me include HIV, respiratory viruses, herpesviruses, enteric viruses, enteroviruses, hepatitic viruses, parvovirus B19, BK virus, chlamydia species, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Procedures that were performed in my laboratory included direct and indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme immunoassays for the detection of viral-specific antibodies or antigens, growth and identification of viruses in cultured cells, isolation and purification of viral RNA or DNA using automated extraction systems, qualitative and quantitative real-time PCR amplification and detection of viral nucleic acids, screening and Western blot assays for detection and confirmation of HIV-specific antibodies, a culture-based system for the growth of HIV, quantitative molecular assays for measuring HIV viral laod, sequencing methods for drug susceptibility testing of HIV, molecular assays for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and immunoassays for the detection of viral markers for the diagnosis and monitor of hepatitis A, B, and C viruses.
Diagnostics, Virology, Clinical Virology, Laboratory Medicine, Rapid Tests, Immunoassays, Immunofluorescence, Western blots, Serology, Molecular Methods, Nucleic Acid Isolation and Purification, Qualitative and Quantitative Molecular Techniques, Real-Time PCR, Viral Load Testing, Antiviral Drug Susceptibility Testing, Genotyping, Cell Culture, Automation, Respiratory Viruses, Herpesviruses, Enteric Viruses, Enteroviruses, HIV, Hepatitic Viruses, Chlamydia Species
My research has involved the development, validation and implementation of rapid and accurate methods for the diagnosis and monitoring of infectious diseases, with a primary focus on viruses. Current emphasis has been on molecular amplification methods such as the polymerase chain reaction, although work in areas of antibody and antigen detection continue as well. Real-time PCR is now the new gold standard for detecting most, if not all, viruses of human significance, and a number of molecular assays to detect many different viruses in a variety of general disease categories have been developed over the years. The method is quite rapid, sensitive and specific and can detect viruses for which existing tests are considerably less accurate or for which no tests exist. Quantitative molecular assays also have been developed and have become invaluable tools to assess disease progression, monitor therapy, predict treatment failure and the emergence of drug resistance, and to facilitate our understanding of the natural history and pathogenesis of certain viruses (e.g., CMV, EBV, HHV-6, BKV, HBV, HCV, and HIV). The potential applications of PCR and other molecular methods for viral diagnosis and monitoring are unlimited, and these methods have dramatically changed the diagnostic landscape of the Clinical Virology Laboratory at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Procedures performed in the Clinical Virology Laboratory include direct and indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme immunoassays for the detection of viral-specific antibodies or antigens, isolation and purification of viral RNA or DNA, real-time PCR for the qualitative and quantitative amplification and detection of viral nucleic acids, screening and confirmation assays for detecting HIV-specific antibodies/antigens, quantitative molecular assays for measurement of HIV viral load, molecular assays for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and immunoassays for the detection of viral markers for the diagnosis and monitor of hepatitis A, B, and C viruses. Equipment of particular interest in the Clinical Virology Laboratory include robotic liquid handling systems, magnetic bead-based automated nucleic acid extraction instruments, 96-well real-time PCR thermal cyclers, random and continuous access immunoassay analyzers, microwell plate washers and readers, Class II laminar-flow biological safety cabinets, light and immunofluorescence microscopes, ultra-low temperature freezers, liquid nitrogen storage systems, and a Biosafety Level 3 facility.
I am currently a medical educator at the University of South Carolina School of Medicine Greenville and the Greenville Health System where I teach courses in Microbiology and Infectious Diseases to second year medical school students.
- Assistant Professor of Pediatrics at University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine (1989 – 1992)
- Assistant Professor of Pediatrics at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (1992 – 1997)
- Associate Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine (1997 – 2012)
- Associate Professor of Pediatrics at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (1997 – 2010)
- Emeritus Professor CE of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine (2014– present)
- Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (2011 – 2014)
- Professor of Pediatrics at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (2010 – 2011)
- Ph.D., Microbiology, Ohio University (1983)
- M.S., Microbiology, University of Montana (1979)
- B.S., Biology, Marietta College (1976)
- Smith, M.J., Clark, H.F., Lawley, D., Bell, L.M., Hodinka, R.L., DiStefano, D.D., Kulnis, G., Zaoutis, T.E., Coffin, S.E.. The clinical and molecular epidemiology of community- and healthcare-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis.. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.. Vol 27. 2008:54-58.
- Hayden, R.T., Hokanson, K.M., Pounds, S.B., Bankowski, M.J., Belzer, S.W., Carr, J., Diorio, D., Forman, M.S., Joshi, Y., Hillyard, D., Hodinka, R.L., Nikiforova, M.N., Romain, C.A., Stevenson, J., Valsamakis, A., Balfour, H.H. Jr., for the U.S. EBV Working Group.. Multicenter comparison of different real-time PCR assays for quantitative detection of Epstein-Barr virus.. J. Clin. Microbiol.. Vol 46. 2008:157-163.
- Maus, M., Posencheg, M., Geddes, K., Elkan, M., Penaranda, S., Oberste, M., Hodinka, R.L.. Detection of echovirus 18 in human breast milk.. J. Clin. Microbiol.. Vol 46. 2008:1137-1140.
- Hook, L.M., Jiang, M., Roth, S., Hodinka, R.L., Friedman, H.M.. Blocking antibody access to neutralizing domains on glycoproteins involved in entry as a novel mechanism of immune evasion by herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoproteins C and E.. J. Virol.. Vol 82. 2008:6935-6941.
- Hodinka, R.L. (Contributor). Clinical microbiology in the 21st century: Keeping the pace ? A Report from the American Academy of Microbiology.. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.. 2008:1-16.
- Newland, J, Laurich, V.M., Wheeler, A., Heydon, K., Licht, D., Keren, R., Zaoutis, T.E., Watson, B., Hodinka, R.L., Coffin, S.E.. Neurological Complications in Children Hospitalized with Influenza: Characteristics, Incidence, and Risk Factors.. J. Peds.. Vol 150. 2007:306-310.
- Coffin, S.E., Zaoutis, T.E., Wheeler, A., Heydon, K., Herrera, G., Bridges, C.B., Watson, B., Localio, R., Hodinka, R.L., Keren, R.. Incidence, complications, and risk factors for prolonged stay in children hospitalized with community-acquired influenza.. Pediatrics.. Vol 119. 2007:740-748.
- King, R.L., Lorch, S.A., Cohen, D.M., Hodinka, R.L., Cohen, K.A., Shah, S.S.. Routine cerebrospinal fluid enterovirus PCR testing reduces hospitalization and antibiotic use in infants 90 days of age or younger.. Pediatrics.. Vol 120. 2007:489-496.
- Patel, M.M., Tate, J.E., Selvarangan, R., Daskalaki, I., Jackson, M.A., Curns, A.T., Coffin, S., Watson, B., Hodinka, R.L., Glass, R.I., Parashar, U.D.. Is routine laboratory testing data useful for surveillance of rotavirus hospitalizations to evaluate the impact of vaccination?. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.. Vol 26. 2007:914-919.
- Cohen, D.M., Lorch, S.A., King, R.L., Hodinka, R.L., Cohen, K.A., Shah, S.S.. Factors influencing the decision to test young infants for herpes simplex virus infection.. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.. Vol 26. 2007:1156-1158.
- Feltes, T.F., Hodinka, R.L., Paridon, S., Wernovsky, G., Sondheimer, H.. The current state of infection with respiratory syncytial virus in the setting of congenital cardiac malformations.. Challenges Facing Pediatric Cardiovascular Practitioners and Their Parents, Cardiol. Young. Vol 16(Suppl. 3). Cambridge University Press, New York, N.Y.; 2006:136-143.
- Shah, S.S., Hodinka, R.L., Turnquist, J.L., Elliot, M.R., Coffin, S.E.. Cerebrospinal fluid mononuclear cell predominance is not related to symptom duration in children with enterovirus meningitis.. J. Peds.. Vol 148. 2006:118-121.
- Malbran, A., Belmonte, L., Ruibal-Ares, B., Bare, P., Massud, I., Parodi, C., Felippo, M., Hodinka, R.L., Haines, K., Nichols, K.E., De Bracco, M.M.. Loss of circulating CD27+ memory B cells and CCR4+ T cells occurring in association with elevated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) loads in XLP patients surviving primary EBV infection.. Blood.. Vol 103. 2004:1625-1631.
- Smith-Whitley, K., Zhao, H., Hodinka, R.L., Kwiatkowski, J., Cecil, R., Cecil, T., Cnaan, A., Ohene-Frempong, K.. Epidemiology of human parvovirus B19 in children with sickle cell disease.. Blood.. Vol 103. 2004:422-427.
- Swanson, P., de Mendoza, C., Joshi, Y., Golden, A., Hodinka, R.L., Soriano, V., Devare, S.G., Hackett, Jr., J.. Impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Genetic Diversity on Performance of Four Commercial Viral Load Assays: LCx HIV RNA Quantitative, AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR v1.5, VERSANT HIV-1 RNA 3.0, and NucliSens HIV-1 QT.. J. Clin. Microbiol.. Vol 43. 2005:3860-3868.
- Tsai, D.E., Nearey, M., Hardy, C.L., Tomaszewski, J.E., Kotloff, R.M., Grossman, R., Olthoff, K.M., Stadtmauer, E.A., Porter, D.L., Schuster, S.J., Luger, S., Hodinka, R.L.. Use of Epstein-Barr virus PCR for the diagnosis and monitoring of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder in adult solid organ transplant patients.. Amer. J. Transplant.. Vol 2. 2002:946-954.
- Kresnicka, L.S., Rubin, D.M., Downes, K.J., Lavelle, J.M., Hodinka, R L., McGowan, K.L., Grundmeier, R., Christian, C.W.. Practice variation in screening for sexually transmitted infections during prepubertal child sexual abuse evaluations.. J. Pediatr. Adolesc. Gynecol.. Vol 22. 2009:292-299.
- Wilkes, J.J., Zaoutis, T.E., Keren, R., Desai, B., Leckerman, K.H., Hodinka, R.L., Metjian, T.A., Coffin, S.E.. Treatment with oseltamivir in children hospitalized with community acquired, laboratory confirmed influenza: review of 5 seasons and evaluation of an electronic reminder.. J. Hosp. Med.. Vol 4(3) . 2009:171-178.
- Wilkes, J.J., Leckerman, K.H., Coffin, S.E., Keren, R., Metjian, T.A., Leckerman, K.H., Hodinka, R.L., Zaoutis, T.E.. Use of antibiotics in children hospitalized with community-acquired, laboratory-confirmed influenza.. J. Peds.. Vol 154(3) . 2009:447-449.
- Iyer, S.S., Mittal, M.K., Hodinka, R.L.. Herpes zoster and meningitis resulting from reactivation of varicella vaccine virus in an immunocompetent child.. Ann. Emerg. Med.. Vol 53. 2009:792-795.
- Hodinka, R.L. (Contributor). HIV testing algorithms: A status report. A publication from the Association of Public Health Laboratories and the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention.. Association of Public Health Laboratories and the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, Silver Spring, MD and Atlanta, GA.. 2009 April:1-57.
- Clark, H.F., Lawley, D., Mallette, L.A., DiNubile, M.J., Hodinka, R.L.. Decline in cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis presenting to the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia after introduction of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine.. Clin. Vaccine Immunol.. Vol 16(3) . 2009:382-386.
- Seiden, J.A., Zorc, J.J., Hodinka, R.L., Shah, S.S.. Lack of cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis in young infants with enterovirus infections of the central nervous system.. Pediatr. Emerg. Care. Vol 26. 2010:77-81.
- Clark, H.F., Lawley, D., Matthijnssens, J., Dinubile, M.J., Hodinka, R.L.:. Sustained decline in cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis presenting to the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia in the new vaccine era.. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.. Vol 29(8) . 2010:699-702.
- Dewan, M., Zorc, J.J., Hodinka, R.L., Shah, S.S.:. Cerebrospinal fluid enteroviral PCR testing in infants 56 days of age or younger.. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med.. Vol 164(9) . 2010:824-830.
- Shah, S.S., Volk, J., Mohamad, Z., Hodinka, R.L., Zorc, J.J.:. Herpes simplex virus testing and hospital length of stay in neonates and young infants.. J. Peds.. Vol 156. 2010:738-743.
- Kajon, A.E., Dickson, L.M., Fisher, B.T., Hodinka, R.L.. Fatal disseminated adenovirus infection in a young adult with systemic lupus erythematosus.. J. Clin. Virol.. Vol 50. Elsevier; 2011:80-83.
- Pierce, V.M., Neide, B., Hodinka, R.L.. Evaluation of the Gen-Probe Aptima HIV-1 RNA qualitative assay as an alternative to Western blot analysis for confirmation of HIV infection.. J. Clin. Microbiol.. Vol 49(4) . 2011 April:1642-1645.
- Ledeboer, N.A., Hodinka, R.L.:. Molecular detection of resistance determinants. J. Clin. Microbiol.. Vol 49(9) . ASM Press; 2011 September:S20-S24.
- Mukherjee, R., Jensen, S.T., Male, F., Bittinger, K., Hodinka, R.L., Miller, M.D., Bushman, F.D.:. Switching between raltegravir resistance pathways analyzed by deep sequencing.. AIDS. Vol 25(16) . 2011:1951-1959.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:. Clusters of acute respiratory illness associated with human enterovirus 68-Asia, Europe, and United States, 2008-2010.. MMWR. Vol 60(38) . 2011 September:1301-1304.
- Pierce, V.M., Hodinka, R.L.. A 3-year-old girl with vomiting and diarrhea. J. Clin. Virol.. Vol 54. 2012:203-206.
- Pierce, V.M., Elkan, M., Leet, M., McGowan, K.L., Hodinka, R.L.. Comparison of the Idaho Technology FilmArray System to real-time PCR for detection of respiratory pathogens in children.. J. Clin. Microbiol.. Vol 50(2) . 2012 February:364-371.
- Pierce, V.M., Hodinka, R.L.. An adolescent with fever, headache, and myalgias.. J. Clin. Virol.. Vol 53. 2012:93-96.