Premature Infants with Lung Disease May Continue to Require Replacement Substance to Ease Breathing

11/19/2004

PHILADELPHIA, Nov. 19 /PRNewswire/ -- Physicians have known for decades
that many premature babies suffer respiratory problems stemming from
insufficiency of a lung substance called surfactant during their first few weeks of life. The standard treatment has been to provide replacement surfactant immediately after birth. A new study has found that even after infants begin producing their own surfactant, it often fails to function properly in premature infants who continue to have lung disease after their first week.

The study also raises the question of whether additional replacement
surfactant treatment may benefit such infants, just as it does in the week
after birth.

Neonatology researchers from The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and
the University of Pennsylvania published the study in the October 20 online
edition of the journal Pediatric Research. It was the first study of surfactant dysfunction in infants beyond the first week of life.

"We studied premature babies who require mechanical ventilation to breathe
after one week of age," said Philip L. Ballard, M.D., Ph.D., director of
Neonatology Research at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. "We found
that three-quarters of these high-risk infants have episodes of surfactant
dysfunction, and these episodes are associated with worsening of their
respiratory status."

Surfactant is a naturally produced mixture of proteins and lipids (fats) that lowers surface tension within alveoli, the tiny air sacs within the lungs. By doing so, it prevents the alveoli from collapsing during exhalation, and eases the work of breathing. Premature infants have underdeveloped respiratory systems and do not produce enough of their own surfactant.

Therefore, physicians have found that supplying replacement surfactant may
improve infants' lung function during the earliest period after birth.

Replacement surfactant is discontinued after babies begin to produce enough surfactant on their own. However, infants with persistent lung disease may develop a condition called bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), in which chronic respiratory distress makes it necessary for infants to breathe through a mechanical ventilator. BPD can cause long-term disability or death.

In this study, the researchers analyzed samples of fluid from the windpipes of 68 premature infants who had breathing tubes between one to 12 weeks after birth. Seventy-five percent of the infants on at least one occasion had abnormal surfactant function, and diminished amounts of an important component of surfactant, called surfactant protein B. In addition, these surfactant abnormalities were significantly more likely to occur during periods of respiratory infection and worsened respiratory status.

Babies are defined as premature if they are born before 37 weeks of gestation. Most premature babies have symptoms of respiratory distress, with the risk increasing with greater prematurity. The infants in this study were very premature, having been born at 23 to 30 weeks gestation.

"Premature infants with continuing respiratory failure and abnormal
surfactant may benefit from treatment with replacement surfactant - or from
strategies to increase their own production of surfactant," said Dr. Ballard, who has been studying infant lung development for more than 30 years. He and his colleagues are currently carrying out a pilot trial of surfactant therapy in preterm infants older than 7 days, and they are planning a clinical trial to investigate short- and long-term safety and effectiveness of surfactant treatment in these infants.

The National Institutes of Health and endowed chairs at The Children's
Hospital of Philadelphia and Children's Mercy Hospital supported the study.
Philadelphia supported the study. Dr. Ballard's co-authors were Jeffrey D. Merrill, M.D., Roberta A. Ballard, M.D., Avital Cnaan, Ph.D., Anna Maria
Hibbs, M.D., Rodolfo I. Godinez, M.D., Ph.D., and Marye H. Godinez, M.D., of
Children's Hospital and the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine; and
William E. Truog, M.D., of the University of Missouri-Kansas City School of
Medicine and Children's Mercy Hospital of Kansas City, Mo.

Founded in 1855 as the nation's first pediatric hospital, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia is ranked today as the best pediatric hospital in the nation by
U.S.News & World Report and Child magazine. Through its long-standing commitment to providing exceptional patient care, training new generations of pediatric healthcare professionals and pioneering major research initiatives, Children's Hospital has fostered many discoveries that have benefited children worldwide. Its pediatric research program is among the largest in the country, ranking second in National Institutes of Health funding. In addition, its unique family-centered care and public service
programs have brought the 430-bed hospital recognition as a leading advocate
for children and adolescents from before birth through age 19. For more
information, visit http://www.chop.edu.

CONTACT: John Ascenzi, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, +1-267-426-6055, Ascenzi@email.chop.edu.